Monday, January 11, 2010

HTHP Package Dyeing Machines

High Temperature Dyeing Machines (Guidance Note)
Package dyeing machines are the most widely used now a days for dyeing of almost all type of yarns ,due to economical ,automatic and accurate dyeing results. The term package dyeing usually denotes for dyeing of any type yarn wound on the compressible dye springs/perforated solid dyeing tubes or cones. Yarn dyeing in package form is done at high temperature and under high pressure ,with the packages mounted on hollow spindles .These spindles are fixed on the dyeing carriers ,which is inserted into the dyeing vessel after closing the lid of the machine ,the dyeing liquor is forced through the packages in two way pattern (inside to out and outside to in) and goes on circulating throughout the vessel and yarn. Heat is applied to the dye liquor to achieve the dyeing temperature, time –temperature and flow reversal are controlled through a programmer.
All operations from pre treatment to finishing can be performed in the same machine ,without taking out the material out of the machine.
A series of technical developments in the recent past has resulted into package dyeing machine being developed into a highly sophisticated dyeing equipment.
The main advantages of package dyeing over other yarn dyeing methods are
1.The material is dyed on cross wound packages ,therefore bigger unit weight( 1.2 kg -1.5 kg for cotton) in dyeing is possible. The bigger weight makes the process sequence from winding to end use economical due to less handling and less changeovers.
2.Economical dyeing due to lower liquor ratio, compact and enclosed dyeing vessels .different liquor ratio is possible in different process steps such as partial filling in washing and soaping and fully flooded in rinsing make the process economical.
3.More uniform dyeing is possible due to higher number of contacts at high and optimized flow rates .The automatic flow control through programmer in critical steps and depending upon the material permeability make the processing trouble free.
4.High temperature ,high pressure and high flow rates results into shorter dyeing cycles.
5.Due to complete automation ,the machines are less labor intensive.
6.Modern machines with partial loading spindles are more flexible for different size lots ,the air pad system allows to maintain the material to liquor ratio and automatic flow control system maintains the flow through the packages ,thus whether the machine is fully loaded ,partially loaded or half loaded ,the dyeing parameters remain the same and results into better reproducibility as well economical dyeing.
7.Bigger dye lots are possible by coupling or linking one ,two, three or even four similar machines. The machines after linking works as a single unit and same shade is produced as a single lot. The coupling allows to serve the bigger lots without going for such bigger machines .The use of coupled machines makes the market service more efficient.
8.Very less handling and damage to dyed substrate ,due to shorter dyeing cycles.
9.All operations from pretreatment to hydro extraction in single machine are possible.
10.The package dyeing machines are more versatile because almost all type of substrates can be dyed and almost all types of dyestuffs applications is possible.
11.The same machines can be used for multiple make ups such as yarn, fiber, tow ,tops, bumps and beams on suitable dyeing carriers.
12.Certain new developments and instrumentation allows to go to very high flow rates
( more than 50 ltrs/kg/minute) without channeling or damaging the yarns and shortening the dyeing cycles considerably. Most advanced machines are equipped with pH regulators and controllers and salt sensors to for achieving very reliable and reproducible results.
Main parts of the machines
1.Main kier or the main vat in which the actual dyeing is being carried out.
2.Expansion or addition tank
3.Stock or preparation tank
4.Main pump
5.Injector or dosing pump
6.Dyeing carrier
7.Sampling device
8.Back cooler in fully flooded models
9.Control panel
Working of Package Dyeing machines
The material to be dyed is wound on the dye springs, perforated plastic cheeses or steel cones and loaded in the carrier spindles ,which are compressed and bolted at the top to make a uniform and homogeneous dyeing coloumn. The liquor containing dyes chemical and auxilliaries is forced through with the help of pump, and circulated through the material from inside –out and is reversed periodically so that each and every part of the material get the same and uniform treatment. The dyeing cycle is controlled through a micro computer and different chemicals may be added through the injector pump or color kitchen at any stage of dyeing.
In case of fully flooded machines ,the liquor expands with the rise in temperature (approximately 5% volume increases from 30-130 degree centigrade temperature) is taken back in the expansion tank through a back cooler. This extra water is then again injected to the dyeing vessel through an injector pump. Expanded volume of the dye liquor is thus remains in continuous circulation in the system.
Any type of addition can be done to the machine through the injector pump, the quantity and time of injection can be controlled through the programmer.
In case of air pad machines ,the air above the liquor acts as a cushion ,which is compressed with the increase in liquor volume, the pressure is controlled by pre set pressure control valve .In air pad machines have an advantage ,that entire dye liquor participate in dyeing and dye exhaustion is perfect. In case some addition has to be done in air pad machines , if the machine temperature is less than 80 degrees ,the liquor is taken back by back transfer valve to addition tank ,and injected back to machine vessel. If the machine temperature is above 80 Degree then cooling has to be done to bring down the machine temperature.
Air pad technology is possible in all types of machines such as vertical kier, horizontal kier and tubular dyeing machines.
The material after dyeing is washed and finished properly in the same machine and taken out hydro extracted or pressure extracted in the same machine and dried subsequently.

Yarn Package Dyeing Machine Instruction :- Animated Video
The dyeing of cotton in high-temperature dyeing machines (Technical circulars)
Different type of Package Dyeing Machines are
1.Vertical Kier Dyeing Machines
2.Horizontal Kier Dyeing Machines
3.Tubular Dyeing Machines
The dyeing of viscose rayon with direct and vat dyestuffs in high-temperature dyeing machines (Technical circulars)
Vertical Kier Dyeing Machines
These machines have a vertical cylindrical dyeing kier, in which material loaded into carriers with vertical perforated spindles, is dyed .The machine could be fully flooded or air pad type .These are high pressure machines and suitable up to 1350C temperature dyeing.

Horizontal HTHP Dyeing Machines

These machines are similar to vertical type machines in which the cylindrical dyeing kier is in horizontal position. The dyeing carriers with vertical spindles are used in these machines, which are inserted into the machine via trolleys. These machines are erected at the ground level and hence do not need an overhead hoist as well as platform, thus making the dyehouse design and layout is simple .
See video here

Tubular HTHP Dyeing Machines

These machines may be of vertical or horizontal type ,and have one or many tubes acting as small dyeing vessels, each with a single individual spindle. The spindle is taken out of the tube ,loaded and then inserted back into it. These machines can be operated either fully loaded tubes or to partial loads by using dummies. Since all individual tubes in a machine are connected and serviced by a main pump, therefore it is also possible to operate as many tube as required and disconnecting others.
These machines can be erected at ground level and hence do not need a platform or hoist.
These machines are most flexible as for as the capacity variation is concerned ,without altering the material to liquor ratio.
Explore More
About Package Dyeing Machines Click Here
Dyeing Machine Controllers Click Here
Package Dyeing Machines Click Here 
Vat Dyeing in Package dyeing machines Click Here


  1. thanx a lot!! it helped me for my internship report!!

  2. out of the three types of HTHP yarn dyeing machines, which one is most preferred & why? response will be highly appreciated...

  3. both are equally good, vertical machines are more widely used ,and it is also reported that vat dyeing results in vertical machines are better , however installation cost of horizontal machines is comparatively less.

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