Sunday, January 31, 2010

Energy Conservation in Textile Wet Processing

Wet processing occurs at various stages in the creation of textiles, including pre-treatment (e.g. cleaning, bleaching and heat setting), dyeing, printing and finishing.Wet processing uses relatively homogeneous processes. It is the most energy-intensive aspect of textile production, accounting for 75 to 85 percent of plant utility costs.
While plants that perform wet processing often require energy for dry processes, space conditioning (i.e. heating, cooling and ventilation) and other needs, this post focuses   on the energy use and management in wet processing.
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Energy management is an influential determinant of a plant’s energy performance. Best practices in energy management are characterized by a high level of commitment, awareness, organization and action in support of energy management.A major focus of an energy management plan is performing a self-assessment to identify energy savings opportunities.Establishing an energy management plan and implementing cost-effective energy conservation opportunities result in increased profitability and competitive advantage for the manufacturer.Equally significant, reduction in energy use can produce significant environmental improvements.The basic requirements for an Energy management Program in textile wet processing
1. Management Commitment

2. Review Of Utility Rate Structure And Purchasing Strategy
3. Self Assessment To Identify And Calculate Energy Savings
4.Quantify Unit Costs for Energy

5.List The Major Energy Consuming Equipment in the Plant
6. Identify Savings Opportunities and Gather Relevant Data
7.Calculating Cost Savings and Implementation Costs
8. Continued Feedback And Analysis
Establishing an Energy Management Program : A Guide Book
Water and Energy saving Solutions in Textile dyeing and printing
Recent Developments in Textile Dyeing
Energy conservation inTextile Manufacturing : UNIDO Report
Energy conservation textile Wet processin an Indian experience
Improvement of Resource Efficiency and Environmental Performance

Energy Efficiency and Environment Management

Energy Conservation
K-C filtration offers energy savings.(A Look at What's Going On In The Industry): An article from: Nonwovens Industry
ISO 14000: Issues & Implementation Guidelines for Responsible Environmental Management

Saturday, January 30, 2010

Textile Knitting

Knitting Fundamentals
Yarn Requiremnt for Knitting

History of Knitting
Introduction to knitting
covers following topics
  • Introduction
  • Weft knitting
  • Warp knitting
  • Binding elements in weft knitting
  • Stitches
  • Basic weft knitted structures
  • Plain knit structure
  • Rib knitted structures
  • Purl knitted structures
  • Interlock knitted structures
  • Comparison between simple weft knitted and woven fabrics

V-Bed Machine Technology
Covering following Topics
  • Machine architecture / construction
  • Needle technology: latch needles
  • Needle technology: compound needles
  • Knitting action
  • Needle-bed technology
  • Sinker technology
  • Feeder technology
  • Cam technology
  • Stitch size and stitch cam adustment
  • Take-down technology
  • Roller take-down systems
  • Take-down systems
  • Needle selection
  • Stitch transfer
  • Racking
  • Machine control (introduction)
V-bed machine fabric structure and patterning
Circular Knitting Technology
A presentation on circular knit fabrics click here
Covering following topics
Quality Control In Circular Knitting
Warp Knitting Machine Technology
Yarn tension, cam forces and robbing back
Watch Videos :- Gearhart Socks Knitting

Read Books :-
A refrence Book on Kniiting Technology
Wet Processing of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabrics
Dyeing and finishing of knitted goods from filament yarns
wet processing of knits

Friday, January 29, 2010

Textile Wet Processing

An Introduction to textile Wet Processing
Fibers ,Yarns , threads ,Woven and knit textiles goods cannot be processed into apparel and other finished textile products until they have passed through several water-intensive wet processing stages. Wet processing enhances the appearance, durability, and serviceability of textiles by converting undyed and unfinished goods, known as gray or greige goods, into finished consumers’goods. Also collectively known as  dyeing and fmishing, wet processing has been broken down into four stages:
1.Fabric or yarn  preparation
To ensure that the textile has the right physical and chemical properties to enable it to be coloured or finished.
Desizing, Singeing, Scouring, Bleaching etc.
2.Coloration or dyeing
To provide the textile with colour either for aesthetic reasons or for some functional purpose determined by the end-use of the product.
Yarn Dyeing ,Fabric Dyeing
Textile printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs.
Roller printing, cylinder printing, or machine printing ,Stencil printing ,Screen-printing ,Digital textile printing 4.Finishing.
To provide the textile with the properties that the end-use demands and which have not already been provided by any earlier processes.
Crease resistance, dimensional stability, stain resistant ,Water Repellency, Flame Repellency, Antisoiling finish etc.
These stages, involve treating gray goods with chemical baths and often require additional washing,rinsing, and drying steps. Note that some of these steps may be optional or repeated depending on the style-quality- type  of textile items being manufactured.

Read More
Water and textile Wet Processing -1
Historical notes on the wet-processing industry
AATCC Garment Wet Processing Technical Manual
A workbook for pollution prevention by source reduction in textile wet processing
Trainer's Workbook on Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Automation in Dye House

Automation is a need for todayAutomation today’’s competitive market where quality, cost and availability is playing major role.
In today today’s scenario quality , quantity and service are the most critical requirements for the servival of textile industry . The cost of production is increasings rapidly but the costs such as  labour cost, raw material cost, power cost, etc. are not in our control. The biggest question for a textile dyer today  is to increase the productivity and reduce the production cost.
The options for increasing productivity and reducing cost of production are
􀂾Reduction in Labour cost
􀂾Reducing Utility cost by power saving
􀂾Value enhancement by Quality improvement
􀂾Increasing output Through state of art machinery
􀂾Improving efficiency and service through managemant systems

All these can be possible only by implementing Automation

What is Automation?
Monitoring and controlling of any process with the help of latest technologies like software, ladder and logic controls, Robotics, ERP system and incorporating central computer is called Automation.

􀂾Achieve more with less.
􀂾Elimination of human error
􀂾Consistency of product
􀂾Minimize Energy consumption
􀂾Easy diagnosis of fault
􀂾Reduction in Resources(Chemicals ,water , energy etc.)
􀂾Reduce manpower.
􀂾Data collection and consolidation.
􀂾Effective application for Complex tasks
􀂾Trending and Report generation.
􀂾Reduction in Effluent
􀂾Improve Safety and Health.
􀂾Reduce breakdowns.
 Dyehouse Management Manual
The very important area for Automation is the dyeing process, because it involves lot of minute parameters which are very  critical. Even in milligrams variation of recipe can change the shade of  the fabric. All the parameters for dyeing like temperature, pressure,water level, water flow, circulation and time of treatment are  most important.
Automation of the dyeing process can improve the producti productivity by controlling the above parameters very accurately.

Automation in textile dyeing and printing means one or more (or all) of the following steps:
a. Programmable process control (by microprocessors) of the machinery;
b. Dissolving and dispensing of the dyes, pigments and chemicals in a central colour kitchen;
c. Computer-controlled weighing of solid material with automatic stock control and the printing of recipe and process cards;
d. Colour measurement, computerized colour matching;
e. Central computer (network), computerized management system

Criteria for selection of  an Automation System

It is very important to identify the need and the feasibility of the system to be automated.The production cost, the complicity of the machines, the utility requirement of the machines, quality parameters of the products are most important factors to consider while planning for Automation.
Select The System which has

2.Ease of Programming.
3.Adaptability to change.
5.Enhanceability of  function.
6.Ruggedness in system.
7.Service Back up.
Learn More
Different types of  automation systems
Seven Steps to Superior Color Control in the Dyehouse
Need of Automation
The Textile Management System

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Cotton Processing : Fiber to Fabric

COTTON, cool, soft, comfortable, the principal clothing fiber of the world. Its production is one of the major factors in world prosperity and economic stability.Cotton's popularity stems from the fiber's inherent benefits, such as tactile comfort (that is, a sensation of softness when touching cotton fabric), and an unsurpassed ability to accept and retain color. Cotton is a seasonless fiber--cool in the summer, insulating in the winter. It "breathes" and therefore keeps body moisture away from the skin. It launders beautifully.Its beauty and natural comfort make the world a better place. Can you imagine a world without cotton? It's often the first fiber we touch when we are born into the world… and it stays with us throughout our lives. Consumer demand clearly shows that people want cotton in their lives all year long because the comfort and strength that cotton provides is empowering.There is nothing fake about cotton. Cotton feels wonderful against your skin and we believe it is the healthiest of all fibers. Life can be hard, but cotton makes our lives easier. What would we do without cotton? Since cotton wrinkles, polyester was added to give it wash and wear properties for a busy world. In recent times, the consumer determined that polyester, although easier to care for, took away the cool from cotton and also added a "pilling" effect to cotton/polyester blends. Consumers now often request "100% Cotton".

cotton is known as for its friendly properties with environment and human body. Cotton is a natural fibre and donot have any hazardess effect as comparison to polyester.

Properties of the cotton
1.Cotton is entirely made up of cellulose.
2.It can also withstand high temperatures in water and tumble drying and remarkably can be bent as many as 50,000 times before breaking point.
3.It is soft and comfortable.
4.It absorbs perspiration quickly.
5.It has good colour retention.
6.It is also strong and durable.
7.It is very versatile, stable chemically, resistant to alkalis.
8.It is of moderate cost.
9.It is sunlight resistant. Handle is soft, cool to the touch.
10.Cotton has an incredible ability to absorb moisture up to 27 times its own weight in water.
Processing of Cotton
Textile – Fibre to Fabric Processing
Textile Raw Materials and Their Conversion Into Yarns; (The Study of the Raw Materials and the Technology of the Spinning Process) a Text-Book
1.Cultivation of cotton
How a cotton plant grows
2.Chemistry of cotton
Cotton is cellulose fiber. Cotton consists typically of 88-96% cellulose. A single molecule of cellulose consists of chain of millions of glucose molecules. Cellulose is natural polymer (C6H10O5)n. It is a polysaccharide. Glucose is a chemical compound in which C (carbon), H (hydrogen),and O (oxygen) are bounded together by covalent bonds (chemical bond).
physical and chemical properties of cotton
The cotton gin is where cotton fiber is separated from the cotton seed.
Ginning process
The first step in the ginning process is when the cotton is vacuumed into tubes that carry it to a dryer to reduce moisture and improve the fiber quality. Then it runs through cleaning equipment to remove leaf trash, sticks and other foreign matter.

Ginning is accomplished by one of two methods. Cotton varieties with shorter staple or fiber length are ginned with saw gins. This process involves the use of circular saws that grip the fibers and pull them through narrow slots.
Cotton ginning Basics
Fiber quality aspects of cotton ginnning
Ginning machinery
Cotton ginning process video 1
cotton ginning video
Practice of Cotton Fibre Selection for Optimum Mixing
Cotton Mixing
Blow room
Process parameters in Blow Room
The blow room only opens the row material to flock whereas the card opens the flock into individual fibers. During this individualization process, coarse trash particles are removed in the licker-in zone and fine trash particles/ dust sucked away. The sheet of carded fibers is removed through a funnel into a loose rope like strand called a sliver.
Combing process serves to improve the row material in production of medium, medium to fine and fine yarns. This in turn reflects into better yarn evenness, strength, cleanliness, smoothness and visual appearance. In the wool system, combed sliver is used to make worsted yarn, while cards sliver is used for woolen yarn. In cotton system, the term combed cotton applies to the yarn mad from combed sliver. The function of comber is:

• To eliminate pre-determine quantity of short fiber.
• To eliminate remaining impurities.
• To eliminate large proportion of naps.
• To form a sliver of maximum possible evenness.
Process parameters in combing

The task of drawing process is to improve evenness over short, medium and especially long term level by straightening and paralyzing the fiber. In addition to this it also for blending of different fibers (Blending of Polyester / Cotton, Polyester / Viscose, Polyester / Wool Etc.) The drawing frame contains several pairs of rollers that rotate at successively faster speed. As the slivers pass through, they are further drawn out and lengthened, to the point where they may be five to six times as long as they were originally. In this process 4 to 8 carded or combed slivers are fed to the drafting arrangement.
Process parameters in Drawing

The main function of the roving is to attenuate the sliver. In this process draw frame sliver is fed to the drafting arrangement, which attenuate the sliver with a draft of between 5-20. The delivered strand is too thin to hold, which is strengthened by imparting twist immediately at the exit form the drafting arrangement. The twisted (rove) is finally wound on the bobbin, so that it is easy to transport to next process, stored and crelled on ring frame.
Process parameters in Speed frame
Ring Spinning
Spinning Machines (Machine Technology)
Air jet spinning
A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers using compressed air.
Air Jet Spinning of Cotton Yarns :- Read here
Compact Spinning
Ring spinning technology : Development in drafting system
open end spinning
Rotor spinning technology
Production Technology and Applications of Nu-Torque™ Singles Ring Yarns
FAQ cotton spinning
Basics of Weaving-1
Basics of Weaving -2
Basics of weaving-3
Basics of Weaving -4
The Weaving Book: Patterns and Ideas
Learning to Weave
A short history of knitting

Introduction to knitting
V-Bed machine technology
Circular machine technology
Warp knitting machine technology
V-Bed machine fabric structure and patterning
Circular knitting fabric structures and patterning
Yarn tension, cam forces and robbing back
Quality control in v-bed knitting
Graphical representation of warp knitted structures
Graphical representation of weft knitted structures
Quality control in circular knitting
Positive feeding on v-bed machines
Weft knitting quality control
Advances in Knitting Technology

Knitting Technology: A Comprehensive Handbook and Practical Guide to Modern Day Principles and Practices
7.Dyeing and finishing
The dyeing of cotton in high-temperature dyeing machines (Technical circulars)
8.Applications : applications of cotton
10. All about cotton

Read About Cotton processing
1.Field to Fabric
2.Process of making cotton cloth
3.Process of.making Cotton Textiles step by step in brief
4. Cotton Textile Processing :-Sustainable solutions for a better future
5.Cotton manufacturing :-An article from 1900s
6.Story of cotton :- Step by step from seed to your wardrobe
7.Organic Cotton Manufacturing
8.Growing cotton : History and cultivation
9. Ring spinning Vs Compact spinning
10. Developments in Spinning
Manual: Sizing, Pretreatment, and Dyeing of Cellulosic Fibres
Dyeing of cellulosic fibres and related processesNew Spinning Systems (Manual of Textile Technology)

Sunday, January 24, 2010

Paddle Dyeing Machines

Paddle dyeing machines

A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat. This is a slow process, but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods.

Horizontal Paddle Machines (over head paddle machine) consist of a curved beck like lower suction to contain the materials and the dye liquor. The goods are moved by a rotating paddle, which extends across the width of the machine. Half immersed paddles cause the material to move upwards and downwards through out the liquor. The temperature can be raised to 98o C in such system.

lateral / oval paddle machines consist of oval tank to enhance the fluid flow and the processing the goods. In the middle of this tank is a closed oval island. The paddle moves in a lateral direction and is not
half submerged in the liquor and the temperature can be increased up to 98o C.

HT Paddle Machines work according to the principle of horizontal paddle machine, however, the temperature can be raised up to 140o C. PES articles are preferably dyed on HT paddles. In paddle machines, the dyeing can be carried out with 30:1 to 40:1, lower ratios reduces optimum movement of the goods, lead to unlevel dyeing, crease formation. For gentleness, the blades of the paddle are either curved or have rounded edges and the rotating speed of the paddle can be regulated from 1.5 to 40 rpm. Circulation of the liquor should be strong enough to prevent goods from sinking to the bottom. Paddle machines are suitable for dyeing articles of all substrates in all forms of make ups. The goods arenormally dyed using PP/PET bags.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Environment Management in Textile Industry

An Environment Management System (EMS) is a tool for managing the impacts of an organisation's activities on the environment. It provides a structured approach to planning and implementing environment protection measures.

Like a financial management system monitors expenditure and income and enables regular checks of a company's financial performance, an EMS monitors environmental performance. An EMS integrates environmental management into a company's daily operations, long term planning and other quality management systems.
Components of EMS
The most important component of an EMS is organisational commitment. For an effective EMS to be developed and implemented, you need commitment from the very top of the organisation, as well as all staff. Further examples of components that should be considered when developing an EMS are:
Environmental Policy
Environmental Impact Identification
Objectives and Targets
Operational and Emergency Procedures
Environmental Management Plan
Responsibilities and Reporting Structure:
Review Audits and Monitoring Compliance
Continual Improvement

Benefits of an EMS
An EMS can assist a company in the following ways:
•minimise environmental liabilities;
•maximize the efficient use of resources;
•reduce waste;
•demonstrate a good corporate image;
•build awareness of environmental concern among employees;
•gain a better understanding of the environmental impacts of business activities; and
•increase profit, improving environmental performance, through more efficient operations.
Read more about Environmental Management Systems in Textile Industry
Environmental Management Systems
ISO 14000: environmental management: what is it? What is required? Other companys' experiences ...: An article from: Products Finishing
Iso 14000 Environmental Management

Quality Managemant Systems in Textile Industry

Traditionally the textile industry has been driven primarily by fashion and creativity rather than by a focus on quality assurance. However, new aproaches such as quality management (QM), accreditation, certification, and conformity are now required.However utility of these tools is often questioned in textile and apparel industry. low productivity, fire fighting, customer complaints, attrition, are issues with textile business. Such approaches have long been standard practice in the automobile industry, and it is recommended that the textile industry take the QM systems of the automobile industry as an example when developing its own systems.
Suuply Chain  and quality Management
Supply Chain Management is the integration of key business processes from end user to original suppliers that provides products, services, and information that add value for customers and other stakeholders. The entire textile supply chain consists of every organization starting from initial fiber supplier to consumer purchasing Apparel products for final consumption. Each organization comprises various functional domains, as manufacturing, planning, marketing etc. Effective supply chain Manages flow of demand and supply, which are moving in the opposite direction to each other, in an efficient way at every node of supply chain.
In the textile and clothing industry quality control is practiced right from the initial stage of sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparel industry product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibres, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, surface designs and the final finished garment products. However quality expectations for export are related to the type of customer segments and the retail outlets.
Cmpliance issues
Compliance is either a state of being in accordance with established guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so. We are living in an age where buyers are not only interested in products itself, but they also want to have full information on details in the process. The new world of international trade is very conscious of ensuring the well being of the stake holders associated with business. This includes buyers, suppliers, employees, and the community, as a whole. Now-a-days the importers of textile products in the developed countries demand that the goods they buy should have been manufactured in textile mills which fulfilled social obligations as envisaged in the relevant ILO conventions. Social compliance is therefore mandatory for the industry in general and textile industry in particular.
The main quality management systems for textile industry are
The ISO 14000 series, currently being developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), is a collection of voluntary standards that assists organisations to achieve environmental and financial gains through the implementation of effective environmental management. The standards provide both a model for streamlining environmental management, and guidelines to ensure environmental issues are considered within decision making practices.

ISO 14001 is the standard for Environment Management Systems. Many large businesses, particularly overseas, have obtained certification under the standard.
•Benefits of International Certification

The benefits of having ISO 14001 certification are mainly realised by large organisations, as SMEs have a smaller turnover and thus a correspondingly small return on the costs of certification.
Although a fully certified ISO EMS may not be suitable for smaller organisations, it does provide guidelines that assist organisations to consider all the relevant issues, and thus gain the most benefit from their EMS, even without certification. SMEs can therefore use ISO 14001 as a model for designing their own EMS.
However, larger organisations may find certification more valuable when considering the potential trade and market advantages of an internationally recognised and certified EMS. This was a significant factor for companies seeking certification under the ISO 9000 quality assurance standards, and is likely to be a factor in decisions regarding ISO 14001 certification.

TQM stands for "Total Quality Management" and infers that a Total Quality Strategy will improve business by proactively improving customer service and job quality.
QFD is:

Understanding Customer Requirements
Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology
Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value
Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction
Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game
EMS guidelines for textiles industry
Statistical process control (SPC) involves using statistical techniques to measure and analyze the variation in processes.

A quality circle is a participatory management technique that enlists the help of employees in solving problems related to their own jobs.

Quality Circles - benefits, cost, Requirements for successful quality circles
TQM : towards zero defects

Friday, January 22, 2010

Organic Textiles

Tonnes of toxic chemicals are used in the conventional farming and production of clothing and textiles. From the farming of the crop, to the production of the yarns, to the finishing of garments, chemicals are used that eventually end up in the environment, causing devastation to plant and animal life indiscriminately. When you add in the human cost to farmers and their families who are in direct contact with these nasty chemicals, this becomes an even bigger issue that we cannot ignore.

Textiles which are made from organic agricultural products, produced in an eco friendly manner in all steps from fiber to the end product, have no harmful effects on users and can be recycled without any harm to the environment are called organic textiles. Almost all of the organic textiles are produced from organic cotton which is grown without the use of toxic and persistent pesticides or fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation or genetic engineering and is certified by an accredited independent organization.

Organic cotton is grown without insecticide or pesticide or the use of genetically modified seeds – in other words it's guaranteed 100% natural and chemical-free. It’s typically rotated with other crops – replenishing the soil and reducing farmers' dependency on a single crop. Certified organic cotton textiles also ban the addition of chemicals as the fibre is turned into cloth.
Organic Cotton
Cotton :-next to the skin
Organic cotton:- A slide show

Cotton is the most preferred and most widely used natural fiber in the textile manufacturing ,because of its comfort , breathability and aesthetic looks. With the growing world population , the demand for textiles is increasing at a very fast pace , thus the demands for quality cotton textile is also growing. Cotton is grown in more than 50 countries of the world , and is a major crop in US, China, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Ezypt etc.

The increase in demand of cotton put much pressure on the agriculture researchers for increasing the output to meet the demand and to reduce the cost of production in the last century particularly. The output of cotton depends upon the natural climatic conditions, soil fertility, availability of irrigation facility , attacks by pests and weeds. To get more output from per unit area of land , a large quantity of, fertilizers to increase the fertility of land , pesticides and insecticides to save the crop from pests and insects, herbisides to defoliate cotton to pick it easily and weedicides are used worldwide. Most of these synthetic chemicals are hazardous and poisons in nature , these chemicals find there way from the agriculture fields to the soil , ground water and to the natural water streams such as rivers , lakes and canals killing thousands of animals and living organisms. Ultimately these enter our food chain and causing deadly diseases. The impact of these chemicals on our environment , natural vegetation , living organisms and human health are alarming. The residues of these chemicals remain on cotton even after processing causes various types of skin diseases and even cancer to consumers , the workers engaged in textile manufacturing come into contact and inhale these chemicals during various processes.

The organic cotton is an answer to the conventionally grown cotton , which is grown in such a way that it has a very low impact on the environment system, by reducing or eliminating the use of harmful chemicals such as fertilizers , pesticides , insecticides and herbicides. Instead of these chemicals natural organic compost manures are used , manual or mechanical weeding implants are used, instead of insecticides , natural and biodegradable insecticides such as neem are used, instead of heavy machinery hand picking is done which also minimizes the wastages.
What is organic cotton ?
Cotton grown without the use of synthetic harmful chemicals such as fertilizers , pesticides and herbicides , and produced without affecting the environment is considered to be organic in nature.
Organic cotton production
Processing of organic cotton
Besides the harmful chemicals and processes used in growing of cotton , a very large quantity of the chemicals also used in the pretreatment , dyeing and finishing of cotton textiles. Many of these chemicals are non biodegradable and dangerous to the environment and human health. A large quantity of fresh water and salt is used in processing , which not only pollutes the natural water resources but also responsible for soil pollution and degradation. The residues of such chemicals in the finished textile items cause various types of allergies and skin diseases. Therefore the process sequence and chemicals in the processing organic cotton must be selected in such a way that
a. consumes less water and energy.
b. Have minimum impact on environment.
c. Must be biodegradable .
d. Needs lesser salt quantities.
e. No harmful emissions.
f. Less polluting .
It is recommended that natural and biodegradable products must be used in the spinning , weaving and knitting , the dyes and chemicals used in the different processes such as pretreatment , desizing, bleaching, dyeing and finishing must be eco friendly and have a low impact on the environment. Even the use of natural colored cotton is preferred. Mechanical finishing techniques must be explored instead of chemical finishes.

GOTS global organic textiles standards , has the specifications of the chemicals , dyes and auxiliaries which are safe to use and are considered fit for organic cotton processing. These products are certified by the institute of market ecology.

Benefits of organic cotton
Major benefits of organic cotton are
a. minimum impact on environment during growing, processing and use of textiles.
b. Healthy working environment for the cotton farmers and textile workers and hence less health problems.
c. Textiles produced are not harmful to the consumer.
d. Less use of synthetic chemicals would assist to maintain ecological balance and increase the soil fertility .
e. Lesser water required and less pollution of natural water bodies.

Potential for textile industry in organic textiles
Most of the top brands in the world such as Nike, Levis, walmart, patagonia, timberland, orvis, addidas, M&S, roots , cotton ginny and target are already introduced organic cotton in their product range and they are expecting manifold increase in the demand of organic textiles in the next coming years. The organic textiles are in great demand particularly in the health conscious high end society.
The organic textiles is a much promising field in the cotton textile segment and India being a major player in the textile field can play a much bigger role by adopting the growing and processing of organic textiles. The textile industry must make an action plan to promote the organic cotton farming by funding the agriculture research projects for providing better and environment friendly inputs. The industry must come forward to help the farming community to grow oraganic cotton , this will not only be beneficial to the farmers and industry , but also help in protecting the environment for the coming generations.
Important Information about organic textiles
IMO Global Organic Textile Standards
Sustainable Organic Textile
Organic textiles and Clothing
All About organic cotton
Organic Farming: Everything You Need to Know
The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener (A gardener's supply book)
Successful Small-Scale Farming: An Organic Approach (Down-To-Earth Book)
The Organic Farmer's Business Handbook: A Complete Guide to Managing Finances, Crops, and Staff-and Making a Profit
Micro Eco-Farming: Prospering from Backyard to Small Acreage in Partnership with the Earth

Eco friendly textiles and eco labels

Eco friendly Textiles
Textile which are produced, processed and disposed of ,with the technology and process which have less harmful effect on ecology and environment and are less harmful effects when used , can  be classified as eco friendly textiles. There are many certifying agencies which tests and audit the products and processes for eco friendly nature of the textiles and such textiles are marked with appropriate labels called "eco labels".

World wide eco labels For Eco friendly textiles
Oeko Tex standard 100
The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is a globally uniform testing and certification system for textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production.

The tests for harmful substances comprise substances which are prohibited or regulated by law, chemicals which are known to be harmful to health, and parameters which are included as a precautionary measure to safeguard health.
A tested textile product is allocated to one of the four Oeko-Tex® product classes based on its intended use. The more intensively a product comes into contact with the skin, the stricter the human ecological requirements it must fulfil.
Manufacturers are entitled to mark successfully tested products or article groups with the Oeko-Tex® label and to advertise in other forms as long as it has been proven within the extensive laboratory tests that all components, including accessories, comply with the specified test criteria without exception. A certificate which is issued applies for one year and can be renewed as often as required.

Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000

To complement the product-related Oeko-Tex® Standard 100, the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 is a testing, auditing and certification system for environmentally-friendly production sites throughout the textile processing chain.
To qualify for certification according to the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000, companies must meet stipulated criteria in terms of their environmentally-friendly manufacturing processes and provide evidence that at least 30% of total production is already certified under Oeko-Tex® Standard 100.

 The required criteria include:

  1. use of environmentally-damaging auxiliaries and dyestuffs prohibited

  2. compliance with standard values for waste water and exhaust air treatment

  3. optimisation of energy consumption

  4. avoidance of noise and dust pollution

  5. defined measures to ensure safety at the workplace

  6. use of child labour prohibited

  7. introduction of basic elements of an environmental management system

The company is monitored by an independent auditor from one of the member institutes of the "Oeko-Tex® International - Association for the Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Textiles". The certificate is valid for three years.
The additional cost of certifying and production process according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 offers textile and clothing companies the following advantages:

  • effective public relations documentation of the objectively stipulated ecological measures in place at a production site

  • increased production efficiency and thus reduced costs

  • waste minimisation

  • increased acceptance of a company's products on the market

More information on the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 and 100plus can be found at

Oeko-Tex® 100plus

The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100plus product label provides textile and clothing manufacturers with the opportunity to highlight the human-ecological optimisation of their products as well as their efforts in production ecology to consumers.
Companies can receive this award if their manufactured products have been successfully certified according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 and they are also able to provide evidence that the entire production chain - in other words, all production sites involved in manufacturing a product - seamlessly comply with the requirements of the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000.
More information on the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 and 100plus can be found at

The aim of REACH is to improve the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of the intrinsic properties of chemical substances. At the same time, innovative capability and competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry should be enhanced. The benefits of the REACH system will come gradually, as more and more substances are phased into REACH.

The label is for textiles, especially textiles made from cotton. The products have to meet certain criteria throughout their entire life cycle, including environmental performance, the abolition of child labour and a reduction of negative effects on human health.
The independent industry textile standard

The bluesign® standard
In response to colossally increasing demand for textile products that are environmentally friendly, pose no health hazards, and conserve resources to the greatest possible extent, the independent bluesign® standard has been established. The demand is originating as a result of strict legislation, and meeting it will be crucial for future success. The bluesign® standard is the most efficient way to guarantee compliance with the new requirements, without compromising functionality, quality or design.For complete infromation click here
Read Article :-Creative approaches to sustainability
EcoLogo provides customers – public, corporate and consumer – with assurance that the products and services bearing the logo meet stringent standards of environmental leadership.
The EcoLogo Program is a Type I eco-label, as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). This means that the Program compares products/services with others in the same category, develops rigorous and scientifically relevant criteria that reflect the entire lifecycle of the product, and awards the EcoLogo to those that are verified by an independent third party as complying with the criteria.

The EcoLogo Program is one of two such programs in North America that has been successfully audited by the Global EcoLabelling Network (GEN) as meeting ISO 14024 standards for eco-labelling.

To increase consumer awareness, the Government of India launched the eco-labelling scheme known as `Ecomark' in 1991 for easy identification of environment-friendly products. Any product which is made, used or disposed of in a way that significantly reduces the harm it would otherwise cause the environment could be considered as Environment-Friendly Product.

Read more about eco friendly textiles
More options in green processing
Eco friendly production of textiles
Eco friendly dyestuffs and processes
Eco Textiles – Ecologically & Environmentally Friendly Textiles Reference
Organic cotton :-A route to eco friendly textiles
About Eco-friendly / Environmentally-friendly Fashion (Clothing and Textiles)
Environmental Friendly Textiles- a road to sustainability
Ecotextile News
Ecotextiles: The Way Forward for Sustainable Development in Textiles (Woodhead Publishing in Textiles)
The International Market for Organic Cotton and Eco-textiles (Pesticides, Poverty & Livelihoods)
Bringing home the green: Mississippians join eco-friendly home furnishings movement.(Focus: Going Green): An article from: Mississippi Business Journal
Back to nature: environmentally friendly line of san pro products puts a new twist on being kind to mother earth.(environmentally friendly feminine hygiene ... An article from: Nonwovens Industry
Creartive approaches to sustainbility